References

Railway Transport – Noise & Vibration impact studies

Brussels (BE)

Brussels – extension line 9 – terminus Heysel – Palais 12: track renewal – acoustic study and vibration study

The study objective was the evaluation of vibration levels and acoustic levels generated by tram passages after track renewal in buildings along avenue Impératrice Charlotte, avenue de Miramar et Esplanade.

The study covered several aspects: vibration measurements, a predictive acoustic study and a predictive vibration study.

Rotterdam (NL)

Track renewal
Rotterdam (NL)

RET Rotterdam plans renewal of the tracks in the Zaagmolenstraat.

After installation of the new track, a new vehicle, the “Citadis II” will be put into service. RET wants to know the effects of these changes on the transmission of vibrations to the dwellings along the line.

At RET’s request, both the recommended criteria/limits as well as existing vibration levels (before the renewal) were taken into account and compared. To this end, a reference measurement (or zero measurement) was also executed.

Palencia-Leon (ES)

High-speed line
Palencia-Leon (ES)

Design and engineering of vibration protection in the high speed line between Palencia and León. The study included a measurement campaign along the over 110 km long alignment.

Manila (PH)

Line 1 – North extension
Manila (PH)

D2S International is noise and vibration consultant (client side) for the new extension connecting the current Yellow line with the Blue Line. The activities included preparation of the tender specifications with respect to the trackworks.

D2S International is noise and vibration consultant (client side) for the new extension connecting the current Yellow line with the Blue Line. The activities included preparation of the tender specifications with respect to the trackworks.

Ghent (BE)

Brusselsesteenweg, Renewal of embedded tram tracks
Ghent (BE)

The noise and vibration study entailed the analysis of the existing noise and vibration levels from tram passages, the prediction of the future noise and vibration levels, the design of a floating slab system for the narrow section of the Brusselsesteenweg (between Keizerspoort and Hoveniersstraat) in order to reduce the vibrations to acceptable levels.

Valencia (ES)

High-speed line
Valencia (ES)

Design of noise and vibration mitigation measures for the new high-speed line Motilla del Palancar – Valencia and Benifaió – Valencia for trains running at 250 to 350 km/h and vibration study in the line: Motilla del Palancar – Valencia. The study included an extensive noise and vibration measurement campaign and site surveys along the over 140 km long alignment.

Olmedo - Zamora (ES)

High-speed line – Technical assistance for the execution of the vibration engineering
Olmedo – Zamora (ES)

The objective of this contract was to evaluate the vibration impact of the High Speed Train Line between Olmedo-Zamora, which consists of 107 km of double high-speed track. The objective was to avoid any risk on complaints or problems in the nearby buildings during exploitation.
D2S International made an analysis of the applicable standards and regulations, a FEM modelling of the track systems, a vibration prediction and finally a selection both budgetary and technically of possible mitigation measures.

Brussels (BE)

Marconi, MER study
Brussels (BE)

Istanbul (TR)

Marmaray project – CR1
Istanbul (TR)

D2S International is in charge of the noise and vibration studies for this project consisting of 64 km tracks from which 20 km at European side and 44 km at the Asian side. This study included a major noise and vibration measurement campaign in over 250 sites. In a second stage of this study, optimal protection is determined for sensitive areas and buildings, including noise screens and special measures for viaducts and stations.

Lyon St Exupéry - Montmélian (FR)

Freight line Lyon – Turin
Lyon St Exupéry – Montmélian (FR)

The vibration levels in the buildings in the immediate surroundings of the future tracks were estimated using highly conservative assumptions in order to determine the zones where more detailed studies were needed. This study included vibration measurements at grade and inside some buildings close to the existing lines, vibration propagation measurements through the different types of soil and numerical procedures for extrapolation of the measurement results to the future line. The estimated vibration levels have been summarised in coloured maps.

Mulhouse (FR)

Tram train
Mulhouse (FR)

Definition of the required vibration mitigation characteristics of the tracks along the entire alignment in order to comply with the specific vibration criteria of this project.

Kuala Lumpur (MY)

Express Rail Link KL International airport
Kuala Lumpur (MY)

Control of ground borne noise and vibration levels in a number of sensitive areas, due to the passages of ERL and CRS trains, including the study of some specific zones verification of the vibration levels at the foot of the columns near the tracks at KL Sentral and control of the ground borne noise and vibration levels in the offices above the tracks at Putrajaya station.

Caen (FR)

GLT
Caen (FR)

Noise and vibration (including ground borne noise) study of the GLT (Guided Light Transport) for both road & rail vehicle. This study ran from the pre-project phase until the verification measurements in exploitation.

Utrecht (NL)

Sunij-line – rail roughness measurements
Utrecht (NL)

Identification and quantification of rail corrugation with Rail Surface Analyser from APT (Alfa Products & Technologies) in order to compare these results with the limits in the ProRail-directive (01/04/2009 – REF RLN00065).

Antwerp (BE)

Pegasus plan Livan 1
Antwerp (BE)

Preliminary study for drafting the DBFM contract and IES: noise and vibrations
This noise and vibration study was part of the preliminary study of the Pegasus plan Livan 1, Tramway line Turnhoutsebaan – Wommelgem – N12. The goal was to characterise the current situation, with regard to noise and vibration in the areas around the tunnel and its surroundings, the open trench slope and at the grade section. These results led to a set of specifications that was included in the tender documents for DBFM contract.
The study covered the following aspects:
 the outlining of the normative framework;
 the characterisation of the current noise and vibration situation;
 the calculating of the future vibration levels;
 the drafting of set of specifications.

Malaga (ES)

Two new metrolines
Malaga (ES)

Comparison of the benefits of two different vibration mitigating track types. The vibration levels in 8 buildings along two future metro lines were predicted by means of numerical modelling. The conclusions formed the basis of the decision on the selection of the solution that had to meet the local Andalusian environmental regulations.

Brussels (BE)

Metro – extension Erasme
Brussels (BE)

This comprehensive noise and vibration study for this partly at grade extension included the selection of the rail fixation system to limit transmission of ground borne noise and vibrations into the adjacent buildings. This was the first application of direct rail fixation on concrete for the Brussels metro. The characteristics of the rail fixation as well as the areas requiring floating slab were determined.

Athens (GR)

Metrolines 2 & 3
Athens (GR)

A complete noise and vibration impact study was made for two new metro lines. The new lines are constructed in a tunnel in non-homogeneous soil and under a large number of sensitive historical buildings. This study involved the determination of the appropriate rail fixation on a concrete trackbed. Noise and vibration calculations were carried out for buildings along both lines, using modelling procedures, which involve finite element analysis. The twin block system with rubber boots and undersleeper pads with a specific dynamic stiffness was selected as an appropriate system to isolate vibrations and ground borne noise. This study showed a.o. that it was not necessary to install expensive floating slabs. The noise and vibration levels in the environment were predicted with high accuracy as was confirmed with verification measurements in the Concert Hall building.

Brussels (BE)

Brussels – extension line 3 – Esplanade – Palais 12: track renewal – acoustic study and vibration study

The study’s objective was the evaluation of vibration levels and acoustic levels generated by tram passages after track renewal in buildings along chaussée Romaine and avenue de Meise.

The study covered several aspects: vibration measurements, a predictive acoustic study and a predictive vibration study.

Amsterdam (NL)

North/South Line
Amsterdam (NL)

The north/south Line Department of the city of Amsterdam contacted D2S International for expert advise and assistance regarding noise, vibrations and track dynamics. D2S International complied an inventory of the buildings along the line, performed initial measurements of noise, vibrations and vibration induced noise, and made predictions of the impact on these buildings with the appropriate mitigation measures. These aspects were included in the building specifications for the design build project and created a normative framework.

Valladolid-Palencia (ES)

High-speed line
Valladolid-Palencia (ES)

Design and engineering of vibration protection in the high speed line between Valladolid and Palencia. The study included a measurement campaign along the over 30 km long alignment.

Caudete - Alicante (ES)

New High-speed line
Caudete – Alicante (ES)

Design and engineering of noise mitigation measures and vibration study along the new high-speed line between Caudete and Alicante. The major included an extensive measurement campaign and site surveys along the over 70 km long alignment.

FC Costa del Sol - Marbella (ES)

Tunnel section
FC Costa del Sol – Marbella (ES)

The scope of this report is the determination and evaluation of the noise and vibration levels coming from the trains running in the tunnel. Two tunnel sections were studied in detail: a station section longitudinally centred at shallow depth in the avenue, a deeper standard tunnel section located beneath the water table and close to building foundations. The LVT track system was considered for both sections.

Palermo (IT)

Tramway lines 1, 2 & 3
Palermo (IT)

D2S International is responsible for the ground borne noise and vibration study of the future tramlines in downtown Palermo. The lines will operate vehicles of the Bombardier Flexibility Outlook series. The study includes the design of vibration mitigation measures.

Barcelona (ES)

High-speed line – Verification rail fastening system
Barcelona (ES)

In a first step of the project, a multi body model was created of the track and vehicle to calculate the forces between the rail and wheels during the passage of a vehicle over a particular track section.
In a second step, a finite element model (FEM) of the rail, fastener and anchorage was created to calculate the stresses in the assembly. Those stresses were compared with the maximum allowable stresses in order to predict if a failure in one of the components would occur or not.

Malaga - Cordoba (ES)

High-speed train track
Malaga – Cordoba (ES)

A noise and vibration study for the new mixed traffic (high speed, regional and freight) trainline in the southwest of the city centre of Malaga was performed. The aim of the study was to identify critical areas along the alignment (including tunnels and open cut tracks) and to define all mitigation measures required, at the track level, in order to avoid any noise and vibration annoyance in nearby buildings during exploitation.

Athens (GR)

Metrolines 2 & 3 – extension
Athens (GR)

10 years after previous study (see above), similar study for new extensions of both metrolines, with a detailed study of special trackwork.

Paris (FR)

CDG Express, Tunnel between station and airport
Paris (FR)

Noise and vibration impact study of a projected 10 km long tunnel for trains running at 160 and 230 km/h between Paris East Station and Charles de Gaulle International Airport.

Bangkok (TH)

MRTA Blue Line
Bangkok (TH)

Ground borne noise and vibration study along the line, taking into account different rail fixation types. Detailed studies inside and outside stations equipped with special trackworks.

Taipei (TW)

Mucha line – extension
Taipai (TW)

Noise and vibration control of the environment; acoustic design of stations.

Istanbul (TR)

Metro – extension
Istanbul (TR)

This project involved a vibration analysis of the metro network. Verification with the selected rail fastening system was carried out in order to ensure compliance with the criteria of the vibration levels and the structure borne noise in the buildings.

Barcelona (ES)

High-speed line Madrid-Zaragoza-Barcelona-Frontera Francesa: tunnel between Sants and La Sagrera
Barcelona (ES)

The project consists of two phases.
Phase 1: Study of 8 different track systems in the tunnel for the high-speed line underground junction on the high-speed line between Sants and La Sagrera station in Barcelona. Calculation of vibration levels inside buildings along the alignment. Special attention was paid on the Sagrada Familia, which is very close to the alignment. The study included a measurement campaign of the vibration propagation in buildings along the alignment around the Sagrada Familia and transfer mobility measurements in the soil close to the Sagrada Familia
Phase 2: Control measurements of the vibration levels in buildings along the alignment after the completion of tunnel for calibration of the model. Two types of vehicle were used for the study: an Alstom S103 car and a Siemens 252 locomotive.

Barcelona (ES)

High-speed line Madrid-Zaragoza-Barcelona
Barcelona (ES)

D2S International performed an investigation of the vibration problems occurring in the buildings along the high-speed train tunnel in Vilafranca del Penedés.
The tunnel consists of 1300 m double-ballasted track and is located next to a conventional rail tunnel. D2S International made a complete analysis of the problem and traced back the vibration problems with a modal analysis of the tunnel. Recommendations were given to change the tunnel structure and track system in order to avoid the vibration problems.

Barcelona (ES)

High-speed track Madrid-Zaragoza-Barcelona/French frontier: tunnel of Sants – La Sagrera
Barcelona (ES)

This noise and vibration study involves the construction of a passage between Sants and La Sagrera in the centre of Barcelona. The aim of the study is to define all mitigation measures required, at the track level, in order to avoid any noise and vibration annoyance in nearby buildings during exploitation. In the project, air born noise and vibrations were considered for the open track sections, ground borne noise and vibrations for the tunnel sections.

London (UK)

CTRL (Channel Tunnel Rail Link) – section 1
London (UK)

Assistance to Spie for all vibration issues related to the track numerical simulations following a methodology imposed by the final customer, determination of required track stiffnesses in order to comply with criteria imposed by the final customer, technical support for lab tests of the track components.

Brussels (BE)

Brussels – extension line 9 – Arbre Ballon – roi Baudoin: Track renewal – acoustic study and vibration study

The study’s objective was the evaluation of vibration levels and acoustic levels generated by tram passages after track renewal in buildings along avenue Arbre Ballon, avenue Général de Ceuninck and avenue Houba de Strooper.

The study covered several aspects: vibration measurements, measurement of transfert function, a predictive acoustic study, and a predictive vibration study with transmissibility measurements.

Madrid (ES)

Line 4C, tunnel between Getafe Central and Parla
Madrid (ES)

Vibration measurements, simulations and analysis were carried out to define the most appropriate track system for this “cut and cover” tunnel.

Ourense - Santiago (ES)

High-speed line
Ourense – Santiago (ES)

Design and engineering of vibration mitigation measures in the high speed line between Ourense and Santiago. The study included a measurement campaign along the over 70 km long alignment.

Edinburgh (UK)

New tramline
Edinburgh (UK)

In an initial phase of the project, a detailed ground borne noise and vibration study was performed for three sensitive buildings along the alignment: the Playhouse Theatre, St John’s Church and the Royal Scottish Academy. A specific measurement campaign was set up in these buildings to make an accurate prediction as input for the track design. The rolling stock in this project is supplied by CAF.
Due to the high quality of the work delivered by D2S International, Siemens extended the scope of work: the ground borne noise and vibration study was extended to the entire alignment between Haymarket and the Harbour Area.

Mexico City (MX)

Metroline 12
Mexico City (MX)

End 2007, the Mexican Federal Government announced the construction of the new metroline: Line 12. Line 12 runs towards the southeastern part of the downtown area and connects with Line 2, Line 3, Line 7 and Line 8. D2S International was responsible for the noise and vibration aspects of this line, which passes directly underneath a large number of buildings. Additionally a detailed study of the viaduct was performed to optimize the track stiffness. D2S International performed this work in collaboration with AYesA, for the JV Alstom-ICA and Carso Infrastructura.

Izmir (TR)

Metro 3rd phase – Vibration study close to University station
Izmir (TR)

The aim of the study is to predict the ground borne vibration levels generated during metro operation of a new extension in a laboratory located in university building close to University station and to define mitigation measures, at the track level, in order to limit ground borne vibrations to a level compliant with a proper functioning of all laboratory equipments.

Paris (FR)

Tramway line T3 – east extension
Paris (FR)

This vibration impact study was realised in the frame of the extension of tramline T3 to the East from Porte d’Ivry to Porte de la Chapelle. The tram type is Alstom Citadis 402 with 4 bogies.

Malaga (ES)

Metrolines L1 & L2
Malaga (ES)

This study describes the ground borne noise and vibration study of Metro Lines 1 & 2 in Malaga and the definition of all mitigation measures, at the track level, in order to avoid ground borne noise and vibration annoyances in nearby buildings.
A numerical prediction of the noise and vibrations is made in typical adjacent buildings based on the data, which was made available including geotechnical data, tunnel sections, structural data on buildings/tunnels, rolling stock data and traffic data. Evaluation of the vibration and ground borne noise levels is done according to the Andalusian legislation and according to the additional requirements in the exploitation specifications and concession contract. An air borne noise study was performed for one section at grade.

Barcelona (ES)

Tunnel Sants – La Sagrera
Barcelona (ES)

Air borne noise study during construction of tunnel between Sants and La Sagrera and evaluation of several mitigation measures with noise maps.

Jerusalem (IL)

Mass Transit System
Jerusalem (IL)

Noise and Vibration study along the whole alignment, including in situ measurements and extensive numerical modelling.

Valenciennes (FR)

New tramway
Valenciennes (FR)

A noise and vibration impact study was carried out for a new tramline in the middle of an old city, with buildings at less than 4 m from the track centre. Several rail fixation systems were compared for their vibration isolation behaviour. A specific rail fastening system on concrete slab was selected for its overall performance good vibration isolation characteristics, low price, low maintenance and long-term stability.

Bobigny (FR)

Tramline 1 – extension
Bobigny (FR)

This project involved a vibration analysis of the extension of the tramline 1 to Noisy-le-Sec (3 km). A rail fastening system was selected to minimize the vibration levels and the structure borne noise levels in the buildings along the alignment.

Antwerp (BE)

Tramline – extension
Antwerp (BE)

The extension of the tramline to Zwijndrecht (Antwerp) includes new tram tracks embedded in the narrow streets. The noise and vibration study included the determination of the noise and vibration sources and the propagation of the corresponding noise and vibrations to the buildings. Control measures were designed in order to minimize the increase in noise and vibrations of the new situation compared with the initial situation. These control measures include acoustic barriers and special rail fasteners on concrete.

Seville (ES)

Metroline 1
Seville (ES)

After only 4 months of operations, metroline 1 in Seville showed some important rail wear, especially in the curves.
Also noise levels arising from vehicle passages in these curves give rise to numerous complaints by residents in the vicinity of the tracks. D2S International investigated these problems by conducting a detailed site investigation comprising a study of the wheel-rail interface and an analysis of the curve noise and its mechanisms. Some remarkable results were obtained with respect to the track geometry. A number of solutions were proposed and implemented to solve the wear and noise problems.

Dubai (AE)

Al Safooh tramway system
Dubai (AE)

The Al Safooh project consists of about 14 km and connects Mall of The Emirates with the Dubai Marina area. The transit system will be serving residential and commercial developments. It has 19 stations and connects to the Dubai Metro Red Line at 3 stations. It runs mainly at grade with about 3 km on a viaduct. Some sensitive buildings are located along the alignment. D2S is in charge of the noise and vibration study, which includes a site survey, measurement of the existing air borne noise levels, determination of the soil transmission characteristics and soil properties, modelling of the future noise and vibration levels and design of the noise and vibration mitigation measures.

Johannesburg (SA)

Gautrain Rapid Rail Link
Johannesburg (SA)

D2S International is in charge of the noise and vibration studies for this project, consisting of 80 km tracks consisting of underground sections, at-grade sections and elevated structures.

Bordeaux (FR)

New tramway
Bordeaux (FR)

A noise and vibration study was carried out for a new tramline in the city of Bordeaux with buildings close to the track centre. Several rail fixation systems were compared for their vibration isolation behaviour. A rail fastening system on concrete slab was selected for its overall performance good vibration isolation characteristics, low price, low maintenance and long-term stability.